ABSTRACT

  The speed of light is not an insurmountable barrier, but rather a phase transition. This transition applies with respect to the observer. It is absolutely paramount to recognize that a myriad of observable reference frame changes are happening at this transition point.

  Such as, Mass is increasing, Time is dilating, a Physical change can be observed as Lorenz transformation contraction, and most importantly, C+ Transparency is occurring.

  Much like the classic Doppler Velocity Experiment, nothing with the note itself is changing, only its interaction with the observer. Therefore, nothing is preventing higher velocities. In fact, if that note was taken to supersonic velocities, it would simply disappear from the observer’s frame of reference. Yet it would still exist unchanged.

  Exactly the same can be said of matter moving faster than C. Nothing is changing with the matter itself, only its interaction with our frame of reference. Therefore, nothing is preventing higher velocities.

  Recognizing this concept opens an absolute wealth of new information and applications, as well as continually proving itself over and over again. This Scientific Principle applies not only to the grand scale of the Universe itself, but equally to the Subatomic Quantum world as well. The explinations of so many observable phenomenon truly have their foundations in the principle of C+ regardless of their scale. Such applications include Dark Matter, Black Holes, Quantum Entanglement and Gravity, to mention a few.

I. INTRODUCTION

  The genuine foundations of scientific principal are much like overlapping building blocks. Newtonian Mechanics for example, eloquently explained the motions of the planets. Yet, the orbit of Mercury was the exception, as it was off by a small unexplainable amount. Years later, Relativity wonderfully accounted for the difference. Newtonian theory worked beautifully until things became extreme. The next overlapping building block, Relativity, fit neatly and perfectly into place.

  Once again things have now become extreme, the next overlapping building block is needed to continue beyond Relativity.

II. THE NEXT BUILDING BLOCK

  One of the truly remarkable features of Mother Nature is the very rare and extraordinary formulas and concepts that wonderfully transcend an almost infinite number of applications.

  The simple yet eloquent, inverse square relationship magnificently fits Gravity and Light, as well as an entire myriad of others. Doppler’s [1] concepts and formulas also reach far beyond, more than just that of sound, such as the Red Shift and Blue Shift of light. Without doubt, one of the most pivotal statements Albert Einstein [2] gave us, “Everything is relative with respect to the observer”, truly reaches far beyond his formulas.

  In a timeless and classic experiment, Doppler showed us that if one placed a stationery observer on the side of a railroad track, and passed a train full of musicians by him, all playing a single unchanging note, the observer could clearly detect a change in pitch as the train approached and then receded. It is the classic “Doppler Effect”. Einstein’s concept, “Everything is relative with respect to the observer” also further went on to beautifully describe the events of this experiment. The same concept and formulas also apply equally to the phenomenon of the Red and Blue shift of light.

  Of absolute paramount importance in Doppler’s experiment is the concept that musicians did not change the pitch of the note, nor did they perceive any change. The change was only with respect to the observer. The musicians saw and did nothing different. The implications of this phenomenom are absolutely and unequivocally profound. It is very important to recognize and understand, that these changes were solely with respect to the observer. What we are clearly seeing is a change in two distinct, frames of reference.

  It is this most fundamental principle “The change in frames of reference” with respect to the observer and their physical attributes that Einstein’s theories so beautifully describe. Just as with Newtonian Mechanics, they work wonderfully well, until things become extreme.

  It is here also, that where relativistic effects become extreme, the formulas of special relativity become classically paradoxical, the best example of such a paradox being Zeno’s Paradox [3]. In Zeno’s Paradox if an object is dropped to the floor it must first fall one half the distance, then half again. No matter how small the remaining distance, the number can be divided once again.

  Mathematically it is therefore impossible for an object to come to rest on the floor, and yet we all know it most certainly will. Zeno’s formula is remarkably accurate and perhaps maybe even eloquent, until things become extreme. Just as with Special Relativity, the remarkable accuracy has been observationally proven. However, it is now necessary for the next building block to put in to place.

   C+

  Special Relativity is as remarkably eloquent and accurate as Zeno’s Formula, However, it misguidedly also suggests that when things become extreme, that is, as velocities approach C, nothing can possibly exceed C. This is because mathematically mass increases as velocity increases and therefore will become infinite.

Special Relativity

  Additionally, mathematically the amount of energy needed to continue to accelerate would also need to be infinite. Again infinite energy would be impossible. Hence the assumption “nothing can go faster than the speed of light”, is indeed simply a Zeno’s Paradox.

  It is critical to recognize, that just as in Doppler’s experiment, absolutely nothing physically has actually changed with respect to the object itself. Therefore, there is nothing actually preventing it from being accelerated beyond the speed of light. All that is happening is a shift in frames of reference. This is quite simply, a phase transition.

There is literally an entire universe that exists beyond C+

  The effects that we see, measure and calculate are all a direct effect of that shift. Remember the object itself has not changed, only the effects of its interaction with our objects contained within our frame of reference. At velocities less than C, Special Relativity eloquently describes the observable phenomena as two frames of reference move apart.

  When the two frames of reference become distant enough, simple communication between the two become increasingly difficult until they are eventually lost. Again, nothing has physically changed for anything within the two frames. The shift is merely large enough that it is not possible for conventional observations and communication. The speed of light is not a barrier but rather a phase transition between two frames of reference that have moved sufficiently apart.

III. NATURE’S WONDROUS GIFT, THE MAGNIFICENT PHOTON

  Just as water itself has been the mother of life, so too are photons equally as wondrous a gift. Without doubt man has been endowed with a most incredible signpost and tool. What magnificent wonders the universe holds for us. Handed neatly and unassumingly to us, by the amazing photon.

  Photons are wonderful little objects with the good fortune of exhibiting the duel nature of both waves and particles. This is due to in part by virtue of their small mass and high velocity. Their almost undetectable mass is because they exist at the fringe of the transition point where C+ transparency begins. Additionally, we have the good fortune of being able to see and interact with them within our frame of reference. Amongst their many capabilities is the ability to thrive at and around that transition point, we call the speed of light.

  It is here that the photon is Mother Nature’s most truly remarkable gift, a signpost! It is as clear as the light it purveys. Here lies the boundary between our frame of reference and the universe. Mass, and consequently time and gravity, can and does indeed exist at what we perceive to be velocities faster than the speed of light. In fact, only our frames of reference have moved apart. It is only the physically observable attributes that change. Mass, time and gravity do indeed exist at speeds faster than C, we need only to look.

+ IV: SIGNPOSTS

  An understanding of how a C object behaves is important to illuminating signposts. During a phase transition, that is when an object is accelerated to C and beyond, its ability to interact with our frame of reference becomes diminished until it no longer interacts. Remember absolutely nothing has changed with respect to the object itself, only its interaction with our frame of reference. It is analogous to a radio wave in its behavior. It has the ability to pass through objects, a phenomenon hereby known as C+ Transparency.

V: NUCLEUS-NUCLEUS COLLISIONS

  Given this behavioral understanding of C+ as well as Nucleus-Nucleus collisions, we now can easily recognize it within theoretical work in high velocity Nucleus-Nucleus collisions [4]. These collisions are occurring at velocities less than C.

  For example, a nucleus accelerated to 99.999 percent of C behaves as expected. It exhibits classical contraction. This is an observationally proven feature of Special Relativity known as the Lorentz transformation [5]. This type of collision is a forced, or induced collision because it is occurring at velocities less than C. Energy is being used to force the nuclei through each other at velocities less than what normally occurs naturally at higher velocities. The nucleus then encounters another nucleus, because the encounter is very short ~10 -22 seconds, as they pass through each other. The subsequent temperatures of such a collision are indeed remarkably high. They have been estimated to be in excess of one trillion degrees.

  As the velocity is further increased and approaches C, the temperature will actually drop. Again, this is due in part because the contact time is growing shorter. Finally, once the nucleus reaches C+ and beyond, there will no longer be any temperature change. The two frames have simply moved sufficiently far enough apart that there is no longer a conventional interaction between the two.

  Of absolute paramount importance to recognize, is the ability of matter traveling near relativistic velocities to pass through other matter. It is this truly key feature that clearly demonstrates the ability of matter to be accelerated to velocities that are capable of moving out of our frame of reference, and therefore exceed the speed of light.

  This is the beginning of the phase transition point. It is a genuinely significant signpost. Once again, matter’s behavior becomes analogous to a radio wave. It exhibits the classic phenomenon of C+ Transparency. The ability to interact with other matter becomes so diminished that it passes through other matter. Accelerated sufficiently it simply moves beyond our frame of reference. Once again, the thermal trend is additionally another clear indicator of this phase transition point.

 

  1.   A nucleus accelerated to 99.999 percent of C, exhibits classical contraction, an observationally proven feature of Special Relativity, known as the Lorentz transformation.

  1.   It then encounters another nucleus, because the encounter is very short ~10-22 seconds, they pass through each other. This type of collision is a forced, or induced collision because it is occurring at velocities less than C. Energy is being used to force the nuclei through each other at velocities less than what normally occurs naturally at higher velocities.

  1.   Of absolute paramount importance to recognize, is the ability of matter traveling near relativistic velocities to pass through other matter.

VI. YOUNG’S DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT

  There is an absolute wealth of clear signposts that C+ is a phase transition. Perhaps the most unquestionable signpost being the famous Young’s Double Slit Experiment [6]. In this classic experiment, light is projected through two slits. Then, on a background that is located behind the slits, an interference pattern is created, therefore wonderfully proving the wave characteristic of light.

  If we place a filter in front of Young’s light source, that now allows only a few photons out at a time, the interference pattern should disappear. The single photons emitted must produce only two single bars, yet they don’t . Even though only single photons are going through the slits, the same complete interference pattern is still created. What is causing this phenomenon?

  What simply is happening is an interaction of photons with other photons. Photons that exist at or near the phase transition point of C. These photons exist just barely below the phase transition, thus they are difficult to detect, yet they are still able to interact with other photons to create the interference pattern.

  It is here that we must also recognize another extremely important fundamental feature of the theory of C. It is that all matter can and does emit particles at a full spectrum of velocities, including those with velocities in excess of C. This is wonderfully illustrated by Young’s Experiment. A light source such as a laser, the hot filament of an incandescent light or even the sun produces photons at a completely full spectrum of high energy velocities, including those that are relativistic.

  A close examination of objects with velocities just below the phase transition of C, additionally pose some interesting phenomena. There is without doubt a small area between C and C+. An area that is hereby known as “The Grey Area”. Within this region weak interactions are often found. Once again, also illuminating other signposts.

 

 

  1.   In Young’s classic experiment, light is projected through two slits. Then, on a background that is located behind the slits, an interference pattern is created, therefore wonderfully proving the wave characteristic of light.

 

  1.   If we place a filter in front of Young’s light source that allows only a few photons out at a time, the interference pattern should disappear. The single photons emitted must produce only two single bars.

 

  1.   Yet, they don’t. Even though only single photons are going through the slits, the same complete interference pattern is still created.

VII. QUANTUM TUNNELING

  Quantum Tunneling is yet another resounding proof of the Theory of C+. While there is a vast myriad of eloquent equations wonderfully describing the results of the phenomena, the actual mechanism itself has remained elusive.

  1. quantum-tunneling

    Here a particle is trapped by a barrier and has insufficient energy to move beyond.

  It is here, that the Theory of C+ once again becomes the next overlapping scientific building block.

  Particles tunnel by virtue of a combination of their initial velocity and interactions with other nearby relativistic particles. Because these particles exist at just slightly less than C+, they are difficult to detect, yet they have the ability to perform work.

  1. quantum-tunneling

    A chance collision with a fringe velocity C particle imparts enough energy to cause the particle to be bumped through a barrier.

  This is clearly similar to the phenomena seen in Young’s Double Slit Experiment. Chance collisions with other particles with velocities located in the fringe range or “Grey Area”, that is just barely C, with precisely the correct velocity and angle, impart enough energy to cause a particle to tunnel. As we have also clearly seen in the theoretical work with high speed Nucleus-Nucleus collisions, given sufficient velocity, particles do indeed have the ability to pass through objects.

  1. quantum-tunneling

    The act of traveling through the barrier consumes energy (if < C+) and hence slows the emerging particle if the collision is precisely appropriate.

  A chance collision with a fringe velocity C particle merely imparts enough extra energy to cause the particle to be relativistically bumped through a barrier. The act of traveling through the barrier consumes energy (if < C+) and hence slows the emerging particle if the collision is precisely appropriate. If the collision is stronger, and more energetic, the particle will simply disappear into the next frame of reference. Again, normal communication between these two frames is traditionally lost. Of great significance, is that we are clearly seeing an observable interaction with relativistic particles, just as seen with Young’s Experiment.

  1. quantum-tunneling

    Of great significance, is that we are clearly seeing an observable interaction with relativistic particles, just as with Young’s Double Split Experiment.

VIII. NIMTZ EXPERIMENT

  Yet another resounding confirmation of the C+ theory can be found in a timeless experiment by Günter Nimtz. [7] regarding superluminal quantum tunneling.

  In this experiment a microwave signal is split in two. One half passes through the air to a detector. The other half of the microwave signal has a barrier placed before the detector. The signals from both halves are then compared. Amazingly, the signal that had to pass through the barrier got there first, thus exceeding the speed of light.

  What actually is happening is the barrier is functioning simply as a filter. Remember that all matter can and does emit particles at full spectrum of velocities, including those with velocities in excess of C+. Most of the microwaves were either reflected or absorbed, however, the microwaves that were emitted at precisely the correct velocity (very close to C+) simply passed through the barrier. The act of passing through at fringe velocity range of C+ absorbs some Energy, hence they were slowed enough to be detected on the other side. Those that were emitted at greater velocities were not detected because at C+ they no longer conventionally interact. They have simply moved beyond our frame of reference.

nimtz-experiment

  1.   In this experiment a microwave signal is split in two. One half passes through the air to a detector. The other half of the microwave signal has a barrier placed before the detector.

nimtz-experiment

  1.   The signal that had to pass through the barrier got there first, thus exceeding the speed of light, as shown by the first spike.

APPLICATIONS

  Given now, an understanding of the behavior of the theory of C+ it is time to put it to work. The implementations and applications can truly be found in a wealth of places. One only needs to look.

IX. DARK MATTER

  While debate about dark matter is indeed one of the more fevered debates amongst cosmologists and physicists today, only the tip of the iceberg, so to speak has come to light. On the top of the list of items to debate, is just how much dark matter in the universe really does exist.

  Observationally only a small fraction has been proven, yet given the behavior of the universe the amount must indeed be vast. We know without doubt, there is far more than we can see. This is because the gravitational effects are clearly evident. Yet its form is presently undetected. It is here that the theory of C+ once again becomes the next building block in our understanding of the universe.

  A great sum of what is perceived as dark matter, can and does exist in the realm of C+. Much of which is a direct result of the Big Bang. There are also many objects that radiate material at high velocities naturally. It is equally important to recognize that not all dark matter is superluminal. There is matter that simply does not radiate or reflect sufficiently to be easily detected.

  Not only matter, but also anti-matter does exist at velocities in excess of C+. The implications for our theories of the Big Bang, the beginning of our universe, as well as our calculations now need to be reevaluated.

X. GRAVITONS

  The recent discovery and confirmation of gravitational waves at the LIGO and VIRGO Observatories has truly opened a wealth of information. This was done using laser interferometry and occurred when two neutron stars merged [8]. The existence of gravitational waves firmly implies the existence of the fundamental particle, the Graviton. Gravitational waves do exhibit wavelength just like photons. They are extremely long and often measured in light years.

  Upon this particular observation of a merger and gravitational waves, a gamma ray burst was also seen 1.7 seconds later. Then followed by x-ray, ultraviolet, infrared rays and so on. This observation and subsequent delay in the arrival of photons speaks absolute volumes about C and C+ velocities, as well as The Grey Area in between them. Here lies solid evidence that gravitons do indeed travel slightly faster than photons.

  Also it is clearly demonstrated, that while the velocities are great, the ability to perform work within our frame of reference is truly powerful, as well as far reaching. Additionally, a new region of C is now that of G, the velocity of gravitons. Exquisitely confirming that velocities in excess of C not only exist, but now must be incorporated into our understanding of the universe and our principles of physics.

XI. QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT

  “Spooky Action at a Distance” is what Einstein called it. Today we know it more commonly as Quantum Entanglement. This is most often observed in pairs but, by no means is limited to just two particles. The phenomenon has been known for many years and has been verified many times in recent years. Yet the actual mechanism is very poorly understood. Einstein himself suspected some sort of communication between the particles.

  We know that particles are exact mirror images and that the act of observing one directly and instantaneously affects the other.

  It is here that the theory of C+ may once again shed some light. Most, if not all matter has the ability to behave with duality of both wave-like and particle-like duality. This becomes extremely apparent as velocities approach C and beyond. This wave-like feature is very important.

  It is therefore entirely plausible that Quantum Entanglement may indeed be a wave-like C reflection. This is analogous to sound waves creating certain fractal patterns at specific resonant frequencies. This can be easily observed when sand is placed on a plate above a speaker.

  A reflection at C+ not only explains pairs but also beautifully explains additional paired particles. Without doubt this is an incredibly important field that is worthy of further research.

XII. BLACK HOLES

  One of the most resounding confirmations of the C+ theory can be found in the recent photographic evidence of Black Holes. This was done by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration and NASA in April 2017. These stunning images are the supermassive Black Hole at the center of the galaxy M87.

  Here the Accretion Disk can be clearly seen against the background of the Black Hole. Here also can be found indisputable proof of material being accelerated to Relativistic velocities.

  Of greatest interest, is the region of the disk nearest the Black Hole. It is this very region that material is being accelerated to the speed of light and beyond. Close examination shows a definite blackness beginning. This blackness is merely the result of the Phase Transition between our two frames of reference. The material here has simply shifted out of our frame of reference, but still exists none the less. This is extremely important to recognize.

black hole

Courtesy of NASA and Event Horizon Telescope collaboration.

 

Furthermore, we additionally know that material is being pulled into the Black Hole, yet it also cannot actually be observed. Once again this is simply because it has Phase Transitioned.

  These Phased Transitioned areas of blackness also give rise to the possibility for the very reason of the blackness of the Black Hole itself. Rotational velocities of the entire Black Hole are indeed great enough that all material has Transitioned beyond our frame of reference. Hence, the blackness.

XIII. IN CONCLUSION

  Matter and therefore time and gravity, can and does exist at velocities in excess of C. As the velocity approaches C, matter’s interactions begin to take on new characteristics. This is with respect to the observer’s frame of reference. These include Lorentz Contraction, Mass increase, Time dilation and increasing C+ Transparency.

  Collisions at slightly less than C yield high temperatures as velocities increase, the temperatures diminish until the temperature change becomes zero. As it continues to be accelerated, its ability to interact also becomes diminished. Very near the transition point it becomes very difficult to detect, yet as seen in both Young’s and Nimtz’s experiments and in Quantum Tunneling it still has the ability to interact.

  Once matter reaches C+ its frame of reference, simply moves sufficiently far enough from our frame of reference that it is not possible for conventional observations and communication. Absolutely nothing is preventing this phase transition because, absolutely nothing about the matter itself has changed. Exactly like Doppler’s experiment, the musical note itself didn’t change, only its interaction with our particular frame of reference.

  The speed of light is not an insurmountable barrier, simply a phase transition between two frames of reference that have moved apart.

XIV. THE NEXT STEPS

  With a thorough understanding of the Theory of C+ we now are faced with answering some of nature’s riddles. Such as accurately calculating the amount of Dark Matter that truly exists in the universe. Quantum Entanglement also needs to be evaluated more closely.

  Perhaps the most important, as well as truly the most genuinely profound implication of all, is the possibility of the answer to Gravity’s Riddle. Countless volumes have been written describing Gravity in vast and seemingly endless detail. Yet, the actual simple mechanism has yet to be revealed. Could it also exist within the realm of C+?

  Could it be, that this most simplest and all pervasive entities, has its roots practically in front of our eyes? Simply, just in another reference frame? One so tantalizingly close that we can reach out and have it pass unassumingly through our hand...

References

  1. [1] C.A. Doppler, Über das farbige licht der Doppelsterne und einiger anderer Gestirne des Himmels. Abh Königl böhm Ges Wiss 2 (1843), pp.465-48.
  2. [2] Albert Einstein, On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Ann. Phys. Leipzig 17 (1905) pp.891-921.
  3. [3] H.D.P. Lee, Zeno of Elea, Cambridge at the University Press (1936) pp.64-75.
  4. [4] Wm. C. McHarris & John O. Rasmussen, High Energy Collisions Between Atomic Nuclei, Scientific American v.250, (Jan.1984), pp.58-67.
  5. [5] H.A. Lorentz, A. Einstein, H. Minkowski & H. Weyl, The Principal of Relativity, A Collection of Original Memoirs on the Special and General Theory of Relativity, Translated by W. Perrett & G.B. Jeffery, Dover Publications Incorporated (1923), pp.3-56.
  6. [6] Alexander Wood, The Wave Theory of Light is Founded, Thomas Young Natural Philosopher 1773-1829 Cambridge at the University Press (1954) pp.143-178.
  7. [7] Günter Nimtz, On Superluminal Tunneling, Progress in Quantum Electronics 27 (2003) pp.417-450.
  8. [8] B.P. Abbott et al. GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral, Physical Review Letters, 20 October 2017, PRL 119, 161101, pp.1-18.